پاسخ ژنوتیپ‌های بابونه (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) به نانو کلات آهن در شرایط متفاوت آبی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی


1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران


به‌منظور مطالعه اثر تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی نانو کلات آهن بر رنگدانه­های فتوسنتزی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد 13 ژنوتیپ بابونه، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل، در سال 1393 اجرا گردید. تیمار‌های آزمایشی شامل: تنش خشکی در 2 سطح (شاهد یا آبیاری در 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و آبیاری 70 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و محلول­پاشی نانو کلات آهن در 2 سطح (شاهد و 2 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) و 13 ژنوتیپ بابونه (اصفهان، مشهد، شیراز، کرمان، اراک، اردستان، گچساران، نائین، خوزستان، صفاشهر، کازرون، آلمان و مجارستان) بودند. نتایج نشان داد علاوه بر اثرات اصلی اثر متقابل تنش در ژنوتیپ و ژنوتیپ در نانو کلات آهن و تنش در نانو کلات آهن و اثرات سه‌جانبه نیز معنی­دار شدند، مقایسه میانگین­ها نشان دهنده وضعیت متفاوت تغییرات ژنوتیپ­ها در هر سطح تنش و نانو کلات آهن می­باشد. در تنش خشکی مصرف نانو کلات آهن موجب کاهش کلروفیل a در ژنوتیپ­های شیراز، خوزستان، نائین، مجارستان و آلمان، کاهش کلروفیل b در ژنوتیپ­های اصفهان، کازرون، اردستان، خوزستان، نائین و آلمان، کاهش کلروفیل کل در ژنوتیپ­های اصفهان، شیراز، اردستان، خوزستان، نائین، مجارستان و آلمان و کاهش آنتوسیانین در ژنوتیپ­های اصفهان، شیراز، صفاشهر، کازرون، خوزستان و آلمان گردید. در تنش خشکی مصرف نانو کلات آهن نیز موجب کاهش عملکرد گل در ژنوتیپ­های مشهد، اراک و نائین و عملکرد بوته در ژنوتیپ­های اصفهان، مشهد، اراک، صفاشهر، خوزستان و نائین شد. بیشترین عملکرد بوته (665/0 گرم) از تیمار عدم تنش و مصرف نانو کلات آهن از کرمان و پایین‌ترین مقدار(164/0 گرم) نیز در تیمار تنش و عدم محلول‌پاشی از ژنوتیپ اراک به دست آمد. به­طورکلی، واکنش ژنوتیپ­های بابونه به تنش خشکی متفاوت بود. در بین ژنوتیپ­های مورد ­بررسی، ژنوتیپ شیراز نسبت به بقیه ژنوتیپ­ها تحمل بیشتری به تنش از خود نشان داد. تأثیرات نانو کلات آهن نیز با توجه به ژنوتیپ متفاوت بـوده و در بیشتر ژنوتیپ­ها بهبود عملکرد و سیستم فتوسنتزی را سبب شـد و نشان­دهنده تأثیرگذاری کودهای نانوکلات در مقادیر کم می­باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Different Irrigation on Nano Iron Chelated to Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamideh azade godjebigloo 1
  • Bartali Fakheri 2
  • Nafise Mehdi Nejhad 2
  • Ghasem Parmoon 3
1 Department of Horticulture and Plant Breeding, Collage of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Collage of Agriculture, University, Zabol.Iran
3 Departmant of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of drought stress and foliar application of nano iron chelated on photosynthetic pigments, yield and yield component of thirteen genotypes of chamomile, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of Zabol University in 2014. The experimental treatments were: drought stress at 2 levels (control or irrigation at 90% of field capacity and irrigation at 70% of field capacity), foliar application of nano iron chelate at 2 levels (control and 2 mg/l) and 13 genotypes of chamomile consisting at: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Kerman, Arak, Ardestan, Gachsaran, Nain, Khozestan, Safashahr, Kazeroon, Germany and Hungary. The results showed that besides the main effects of stress×genotype, the genotype×nano iron chelated and stress×nano iron chelated interactions and the triple effects were also became significant. Mean comparisons showed that the condition of genotypes at any level of stress and nano iron chelated had different trends. Using nano iron chelated in drought stress decreased chlorophyll a in Shiraz, Khozestan, Nain, Hungary and Germany genotypes, decreased chlorophyll b in genotypes of Isfahan, Kazeroon, Ardestan, Khozestan, Nain and Germany, decreased total chlorophyll in genotypes of Isfahan, Shiraz, Ardestan, Khozestan, Nain, Hungary and Germany and decreased anthocyanin content in Isfahan, Shiraz, Safashahr, Kazeroon, Khozestan and Germany genotypes. Using nano iron chelated in drought stress also caused a decrease in flower yield of Mashhad, Arak and Nain and a decrease per plant yield of Isfahan, Mashhad, Arak, Safashahr, Khozestan and Nain genotypes. The highest per plant yield (0.665 g.) belonged to Kerman genotype, were achieved through non-stress and use of nano iron chelate treatments and the lowest per plant yield (0.164 g.) to Arak genotype through the stress and non-spray treatments. Totally the interaction of chamomile genotypes to drought stress were different. Among the genotypes under study the Shiraz genotype were more resistant to stress compared to others. The effects of application of nano iron chelated were different depending on the genotype and for most of the genotypes it increased the photosynthetic pigment contents and yield components of Chamomile. This shows the effectiveness of low rate application of nano iron chelate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chamomile
  • Drought stress
  • genotype
  • Nano iron chelated
  • Yield components
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