عنوان مقاله [English]
To evaluate the effects of Zn application on seed yield and some qualitative properties of wheat in a calcareous soil an experiment was carried out in factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran, during 2014 growing season. The first factor consisted of four durum wheat genotypes and the second factor of levels two zinc sulfate application (control and foliar application of Zn on soil at stem elongation + seed filling stages). The results showed that application of zinc sulfate could increase biological and seed yields of RCOL genotype by 2 and 4 times compared to control respectively. The effects application of zinc sulfate on biological and seed yields of other genotypes were not significant. Based on the results obtained from this study the highest increase in seed weight was 20.7% in the RCOL genotype by Zn application. The highest reduction in phytic acid to zinc molar ratio was observed in Ege-88 genotype and this ratio was decreased by 52.2 percent in the control to 8.4% due to Zn application. This may indicate different responses of durum wheat genotypes to the zinc deficiency in the soil. The results also showed that the number of seed per spike was increased by 22.7 percent and phytic acid was decreased by 62.3 percent due to the application of zinc sulfate. Also, application of zinc sulfate increased Zn concentration in seed from 29.9 mg.kg-1 to 64.7 mg.kg-1 in control. In general, however, the application of zinc was not the reason of seed yield improvement of all genotypes studied but it improved seed yield qualities. It can be concluded that use of Zn is an appropriate method to improve the qualitative and quantitative traits of seed yield. To confirm these results other studies are needed.
· Abdoli, M., A. Esfandiari, S.B. Mousavi, B. Sadeghzadeh, and M. Saeidi. 2016a. The effect of seed zinc internal content and foliar application of zinc sulfate on yield and storage compositions of wheat grain. Crop Physiology Journal. 7(28): 91-106. (In Persian).
· Abdoli, M., E. Esfandiari, B. Sadeghzadeh, and S.B. Mousavi. 2016b. Zinc application methods affect agronomy traits and grain micronutrients in bread and durum wheat under zinc-deficient calcareous soil. Yuzuncu Yil University Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 26(2): 202-214.
· Abdoli, M., E. Esfandiari, S.B. Mousavi, and B. Sadeghzadeh. 2014. Effects of foliar application of zinc sulfate at different phenological stages on yield formation and grain zinc content of bread wheat (cv. Kohdasht). Azarian Journal of Agriculture. 1(1): 11-17.
· Anonymous. 1996. Trace element in human nutrition and health. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.
· Anonymous. 2002. The world health report. Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 284 p.
· Bagci, S.A., H. Ekiz, A. Yilmaz, and I. Cakmak. 2007. Effect of zinc deficiency and drought on grain yield of field-grown wheat cultivars in Central Anatolia. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 193(3): 198-206.
· Baghbani, A., A. Kadkhodaie, and S.A.M. Modarres-Sanavy. 2016. Effects of wheat and bean residues along with zinc sulfate application on some qualitative and quantitative characteristices of wheat. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 39(3): 555-566. (In Persian).
· Baghban-Tabiat, S., and M. Rasouli-Sadaghiani. 2012. Investigation of Zn utilization and acquisition efficiency in different wheat genotypes at greenhouse conditions. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 3(10): 17-32. (In Persian).
· Bayat, Z., A. Ahmadi, and M. Sabokdast. 2011. Genotypic variation for yield and grain protein concentration and its relationship with nitrogen remobilization in Iranian wheat. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 42(3): 565-573. (In Persian).
· Bharti, K., N. Pandey, D. Shankhdhar, P.C. Srivastava, and S.C. Shankhdhar. 2013. Improving nutritional quality of wheat through soil and foliar zinc application. Plant, Soil and Environment. 59(8): 348-352.
· Bryce, J., C. Boschi-Pinto, K. Shibuya, and R.E. Black. 2005. WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet. 365(9465): 1147-1152.
· Bybordi, A., and M.J. Malakouti. 2007. Effects of zinc fertilizer on the yield and quality of two winter varieties of canola. Zinc crops. International Congress of Improving Crop Production and Human Health, 24-26 May, Istanbul, Turkey.
· Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant and Soil. 302: 1-17.
· Cakmak, I., A. Torun, E. Millet, M. Feldman, T. Fahima, A. Korol, E. Nevo, H.J. Braun, and H. Ozkan. 2004. Triticum dicoccoides: an important genetic resource for increasing zinc and iron concentration in modern cultivated wheat. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 50: 1047-1054.
· Cakmak, I., H. Marschner, and F. Bangerth. 1989. Effect of zinc nutritional status on growth, protein metabolism and levels of indole-3-acetic acid and other phytohormones in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Experimental Botany. 40(212): 405-412.
· Cakmak, I., M. Kalayci, Y. Kaya, A.A. Torun, N. Aydin, Y. Wang, Z. Arisoy, H. Erdem, O. Gokmen, L. Ozturk, and W.J. Horst. 2010. Biofortification and localization of zinc in wheat grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58: 9092-9102.
· Cole, C.R., F.K. Grant, E.D. Swaby-Ellis, J.L. Smith, and A. Jacques. 2010. Zinc and iron deficiency and their interrelations in low income African American and Hispanic children in Atlanta. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91: 1027-1034.
· Cunningham-Rundles, S., D.F. McNeeley, and A. Moon. 2005. Mechanisms of nutrient modulation of the immune response. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 115: 1119-1128.
· Dargahi, M., R. Sadrabadi Haghighi, and K. Bakhsh Kelarestaghi. 2014. Effect of zinc chelate foliar application on yield and yield components of fourwheat cultivars. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 30(2): 137-148. (In Persian).
· Doria, L., L. Galleschi, L. Calucci, C. Pinzino, R. Pilu, E. Cassani, and E. Nielsen. 2009. Phytic acid prevents oxidative stress in seeds: evidence from a maize (Zea mays L.) low phytic acid mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60(3): 967-978.
· Emami, A. 1996. Methods of plant analysis. Technical Bulletin No. 982, Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, 130 p. (In Persian).
· Erdal, I., A. Yilmaz, S. Tan, B. Torun, and I. Cakmak. 2002. Phytic acid and phosphorus concentrations in seeds of wheat cultivars grown with and without zinc fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 25(1): 113-127.
· Esfandiari, E., M. Abdoli, S.B. Mousavi, and B. Sadeghzadeh. 2016. Impact of foliar zinc application on agronomic traits and grain quality parameters of wheat grown in zinc deficient soil. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 21(3): 263-270.
· Fathi, G.A., and M.R. Enayat Gholizadeh. 2009. Effect of low consumption of fertilizers, iron, zinc and copper on growth and yield of barley weather conditions in Khuzestan. Journal of Crop Physiology. 1(1): 28-41. (In Persian).
· Genc, Y., and G.K. McDonald. 2008. Domesticated emmer wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] as a source for improvement of zinc efficiency in durum wheat. Plant and Soil. 310: 67-75.
· Genc, Y., G.K. McDonald, and R.D. Graham. 2006. Contribution of different mechanisms to zinc efficiency in bread wheat during early vegetative stage. Plant and Soil. 281: 353-367.
· Haug, W., and H.J. Lantzsch. 1983. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereal products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 34(12): 1423-1426.
· Hussain, S., M. Aamer Maqsood, Z. Rengel, and T. Aziz. 2012. Biofortification and estimated human bioavailability of zinc in wheat grains as influenced by methods of zinc application. Plant and Soil. 361: 279-290.
· Imran, M., S. Kanwal, S. Hussain, T. Aziz, and M. Aamer-Maqsood. 2015. Efficacy of zinc application methods for concentration and estimated bioavailability of zinc in grains of rice grown on a calcareous soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 52(1): 169-175.
· Khan, M.A., M.P. Fuller, and F.S. Baloch. 2008. Effect of soil applied zinc sulfate on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown on a calcareous soil Pakistan. Cereal Research Communications. 36(4): 571-582.
· Li, M., X.W. Yang, X.H. Tian, S.X. Wang, and Y.L. Chen. 2014. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and foliar zinc application at different growth stages on zinc translocation and utilization efficiency in winter wheat. Cereal Research Communication. 42(1): 81-90.
· Mabesa, R.L., S.M. Impa, D. Grewal, and S.E. Johnson-Beebout. 2013. Contrasting grain-Zn response of biofortification rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding lines to foliar Zn application. Field Crops Research. 149: 223-233.
· Maghsoudi, B., B. Jafari Haghighi, and A.R. Jafari. 2014. Effect of micronutrient elements and hormone auxin on yield and yield components of durum wheat. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 6(16): 13-26. (In Persian).
· Mahmoodi, J., and M. Yarnia. 2013. The effect of zinc sulfate different amount soil and foliar application on correlated grain characters in sweet corn. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 24(4): 429-442. (In Persian).
· Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Second Edition Academic Press. New York. 890 p.
· Motesharezadeh, B., and G. Savaghebi. 2012. The effect of balanced fertilization on nutrients’ concentration and phytic acid to zinc molar ratio in Iranian red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus L.) cultivars at different stages of seed development. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 3(9): 73-84. (In Persian).
· Mottaghi, M., S.A. Seyed-Mohammadi, and T. Sakynzhad. 2013. Quality and technological value of wheat. Publication of Behta Pazhuhesh. 432 p. (In Persian).
· Nan, Z., J. Li, J. Zhang, and G. Cheng. 2002. Cadmium and zinc interactions and their transfer in soil-crop system under actual field conditions. Science of the Total Environment. 285: 187-195.
· Nawaz, H., N. Hussain, A. Yasmeen, M. Arif, M. Hussain, M.I.A. Rehmani, M.B. Chattha, and A. Ahmad. 2015. Soil applied zinc ensures high production and net returns of divergent wheat cultivars. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 2(1): 1-7.
· Passerini, A., C. Andreini, S. Menchetti, A. Rosato, and P. Frasconi. 2007. Predicting zinc binding at the proteome level. BMC Bioinformatics. 8: 1-13.
· Peleg, Z., Y. Saranga, A. Yazici, T. Fahima, L. Ozturk, and I. Cakmak. 2008. Grain zinc, iron and protein concentrations and zinc-efficiency in wild emmer wheat under contrasting irrigation regimes. Plant and Soil. 306: 57-67.
· Pourgholam, M., N. Nemati, and M. Oveysi. 2013. Effect of zinc and iron under the influence of drought on prolin, protein and nitrogen leaf of rapeseed (Brassica napus). Annals of Biological Research. 4(7): 200-203.
· Prasad, A.S. 2003. Zinc deficiency. British Medical Journal. 326: 409-410.
· Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., B. Sadeghzadeh, E. Sepehr, and Z. Rengel. 2011. Root exudation and zinc uptake by barley genotypes differing in Zn efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 34: 1120-1132.
· Rehman, H., T. Aziz, M. Farooq, A. Wakeel, and Z. Rengel. 2012. Zinc nutrition in rice production systems: A review. Plant and Soil. 361: 203-226.
· Sadeghzadeh, B. 2013. A review of zinc nutrition and plant breeding. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 13(4): 905-927.
· Sadeghzadeh, B., and Z. Rengel. 2011. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. In: Malcolm J. Hawkesford and Peter Barraclough (eds.). The Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops, Chapter 16. pp: 335-375.
· Shu, N., T. Zhou, and S. Hovmöller. 2008. Prediction of zinc-binding sites in proteins from sequence. BMC Bioinformatics. 24: 775-782.
· Singh, A., and Y. Singh-Shivay. 2015. Zinc application and green manuring enhances growth and yield in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 20(3): 289-296.
· Urbano, G., M. Lopez-Jurado, P. Aranda, C. Vidal-Valverde, E. Tenorio, and J. Porres. 2000. The role of phytic acid in legumes. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 56(3): 283-294.
Yang, X.W., X.H. Tian, W.J. Gale, X.Y. Cao, X.C. Lu, and A.Q. Zhao. 2011. Effect of soil and foliar zinc application on zinc concentration and bioavailability in wheat grain on potentially zinc deficient soil. Cereal Research Communication. 39: 535-543.