واکنش برخی شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد شنبلیله (.Trigonella foenum-graecum L) به زئولیت و کود نیتروژن در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی


1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران


به‌منظور بررسی اثرات تنش کم‌آبی، کود نیتروژن و زئولیت بر شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه دانشگاه تربیت مدرس اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل پنج رژیم آبیاری (بدون تنش؛ تنش خفیف در مراحل رویشی و زایشی؛ تنش شدید در مراحل رویشی و زایشی) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب فاکتوریلی از سه تیمار کودی بر اساس نیتروژن مورد نیاز گیاه (شاهد، ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 7/2 تن در هکتار و اوره به میزان 11 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و دو مقدار زئولیت (صفر و نه تن در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. در هر دو سال با افزایش شدت تنش کم‌آبی شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، ارتفاع گیاه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله کاهش یافتند به‌گونه‌ای‌که تیمار تنش شدید کم‌آبی در مرحله زایشی بدون کود و زئولیت (با کمترین مقدار عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه) در مقایسه با شاهد، به‌ترتیب در هر دو سال، کاهش 96/60 و 09/48 درصدی در عملکرد بیولوژیک و 18/80 و 62/75 درصدی در عملکرد دانه را نشان داد. با کاربرد کود نیتروژن، خصوصاً ورمی‌کمپوست، میزان شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد گیاه در مراحل مختلف رشدی و به‌تبع آن عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله، در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری افزایش یافتند. در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری تیمارهایی که ورمی‌کمپوست و یا زئولیت در آنها به‌کار رفته بودند توانستند شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت رشد بالاتری داشته باشند و در نهایت عملکرد بیشتری تولید نمایند.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Deficit Water Stress on Some Growth Indices and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in Response to the Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Baghbani Arani 1
  • Seyyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar 3
  • Ali Mokhtassi Bidgoli 2
1 Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Biology Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water deficit stress, nitrogen fertilizer and zeolite on growth parameters, biomass and seed yield of fenugreek. A split factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Research Field of Tarbiat Modares University in 2014 and 2015. Five irrigation regimes (unstressed, mild stresses during the vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively; severe stresses during the vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively) were randomized to the main plots. Subplots consisted of six treatments of a factorial combination of three levels of nitrogen fertilizations (untreated plots, vermicompost fertilizer at a rate of 2.7 t.ha-1 and nitrogen chemical fertilizer at a rate of 11 kg.ha-1) and two rates of zeolite (0 and 9 t.ha-1). In both years, increasing severity of water deficiet stresses reduced leaf area index, crop growth rate, plant height, biological and seed yield of fenugreek; Thus, severe water deficit stress at the reproductive stage without fertilizer and zeolite (with the least amount of biological and grain yield) compared with that of control, caused 60.96 and 48.09 percent reduction in biological yield and 80.18 and 75.62 percent reduction in grain yield, in both years, respectively. Application of nitrogen fertilizer, especially vermicompost, resulted in a significant increase in the leaf area index, crop growth rate of fenugreek in various stages of development, thereby increased biological and grain yield in different irrigation regimes. In various irrigation regimes, higher leaf area index, crop growth rate and finally more yield produced with application of vermicompost or zeolite.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CGR
  • Drought stress
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • LAI
  • vermicompost
· Ahmad Alhadi, F., B. Taha Yasseen, and M. Jabr. 1999. Water stress and gibberellic acid effects on growth of Fenugreek plants. Irrigation Science. 18: 185-190.
· Allahdadi, I., A. Memari, Gh. Akbari, and O. Lotfifar. 2010. Effect of different amounts of municipal solid waste compost on soil properties and nutrient concentration and growth of corn yield. Plant Production Technology. 11(1): 83-97.
· Arancon, N.Q., C.A. Edwards, P. Bierman, J.D. Metzger, and C. Lucht. 2005. Effects of vermicomposts produced from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste on the growth and yield of peppers in the field. Pedobiologia. 49: 297–306.
· Arguello, J.A., A. Ledesma, S.B. Nunez, C.H. Rodriguez, and M.D.D. Goldfarb. 2006. Vermicompost effects on bulbing dynamics, nonstructural carbohydrate content, yield, and quality of Rosado paraguayo garlic bulbs. Hort Science. 41(3): 589-592.
· Baghalian, K. Sh. Abdoshah, F. Khalighi-Sigaroodi, and F. Paknejad. 2011. Physiological and phytochemical response to drought stress of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 49: 201-207.
· Bazazi, N., M. Khodambashi, and Sh. Mohammadi. 2013. Effect of drought stress on morphological characteristics and yield components of Fenugreek. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 3(8): 11-22. (In Persian).
· Dadrasan, M., M.R. Chaichi, A.A. Pourbabaee, D. Yazdani, and R. Keshavarz-Afshar. 2015. Deficit irrigation and biological fertilizer influence on yield and trigonelline production of Fenugreek. Industrial Crops and Products. 77: 156–162.
· Dordas, C., and C. Sioulas. 2008.Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rain-fed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products. 27: 75–85.
· Ehyaei, H.R., P. Rezvani Moghadam, and M.B. Amiri. 2009. Effect of drought stress on some morphological indices of sweet basil and fenugreek in greenhouse conditions. The First National Conference on Environmental Stresses in Agricultural Science, 28-29 January, Birjand University, pp. 136. (In Persian).
· Fallah, S., and M. Nazari. 2012. The effect of biofertilizers and zinc sulfate on growth and yield drug plant fenugreek under drought conditions in Shahrekord region. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science. 5(2): 147-159. (In Persian).
· Gardner, F., P.R. Balle, and D.E. Mc Cloud. 1990. Yield characreristics of ancient races of maize compared to a modern hybrid. Agronomy Journal. 82: 864-868.
· Gorgini Shabankareh, H., B.A. Fakheri, and R. Mohammadpuor Vashvaii. 2016. Effects of different levels of salinity and drought stress on growth parameters and essential oil of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science. 46(4): 673-686. (In Persian).
· Goudriaan, J., H.H. van Laar. 1994. Modelling potential crop growth processes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
· Haj-Seyed-Hadi, M., and H. Rezaee- Ghale .2016. Effects of vermicompost and foliar application of amino acids and urea on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 31(6): 1058-1070. (In Persian).
· Hamidpour, M., S. Fathi, and H. Rosta. 2013. The effect of zeolite and vermicompost on growth characteristics and concentration of some elements Petunia. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 4(13): 95-102. (In Persian).
· Hazrati, S., Z. Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, S.A.M. Modarres-Sanavy, and A. Mokhtassi-Bidgoli. 2015. Evaluation of light intensity and water deficiency stress with application of zeolite on physiological and phytochemical functions of Aloe Vera medicinal plant. Ph.D. Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
· Ippolito, A.J., D.D. Tarkalson, and G.A. Lehrsch. 2011. Zeolite soil application method affects inorganic nitrogen, moisture, and corn growth. Soil Science. 176(3): 136-142.
· Jaleel, C.A., B. Sankar, P.V. Murali, M. Gomathinayagam, G.M.A. Lakshmanan, and R. Panneerselvam. 2008. Water deficit stress effects on reactive oxygen metabolism in Catharanthus roseus L. impact on ajmalicine accumulation. Colloids Surfaces. Biointerfaces. 62: 105-111.
· Karimi, S., M. Nasri, and F. Ghoshchi. 2013. Investigation of drought stress on agro-physiological indices of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with zeolite application tested in the region of Varamin. International Journal of Agriculture Science. 3(12): 894-903.
· Loecke, T., D. Liebman, M. Cambardella, and T.L. Richard. 2004. Corn growth responses to composted and fresh solid swine manures. Crop Science. 44: 177-184.
· Mokhtassi-Bidgolia, A., M. Agha Alikhania, M. Nassiri-Mahallatib, E. Zandc, J.L. Gonzalez-Andujard, and A. Azarie. 2013. Agronomic performance, seed quality and nitrogen uptake of Descurainia sophia in response to different nitrogen rates and water regimes. Industrial Crops and Products. 44: 583– 592.
· Mosavian, S.N., and S.A. Seyed Mohammadi. 2015 .The effect of nitrogen and cropping patterns on morphological traits and growth indices in intercropping of maize and sunflower. Crop Physiology Journal. 7(26): 105-120. (In Persian).
· Movahhedy-Dehnavy, M., S.A.M. Modarres-Sanavy, and A. Mokhtassi-Bidgoli. 2009. Foliar application of zinc and manganese improves seed yield and quality of sunfflower (Helianthus annus L.) grown under water deficit stress. Industrial Crops and Products. 30: 82–92.
· Omidi, A.H. 2009. Effect of drought stress at different growth stages on seed yeild and some agro-physiological traits of three spring safflower cultivars. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 25(1): 15-31. (In Persian).
· Pandy, R.K., J.W. Maranvill, and M.M. Chetima. 2000.  Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment II. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction. Agriculture Water Managment. 46: 15-27.
· Parsa, M., A. Ganjali, E. Rezaeianzadeh, and A. Nezami. 2011. The effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and growth indices of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 9(3): 310-321. (In Persian).
· Radfords, P.J. 1967. Growth analysis formulae–Their use and abuse. Crop Science. 7: 171-175.
· Riasat, M., A.R. Nasirzadeh, A.A. Jafari, and L. Jokar. 2005. Resistance of Trigonella perennial accessions to drought stress. Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Forest Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 13: 189-208. (In Persian).
· Sajedi, N., and A. Ardekani. 2008.Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, iron on the physiological indices forage maize in central provinces. Iranian Studies Journal of Agronomy. 6 (1): 99-110. (In Persian).
· SAS, Procedures Guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.2002.
· Singer, J.W., K.A. Kohler, M. Liebman, T.L. Richard, C.A. Cambardella, and D.D. Buhler. 2004. Tillage and compost affect yield of corn, soybean, and wheat and soil fertility. Agronomy Journal. 96: 531-537.
· Singh, S.P. 1995. Selection for water stress tolerance in interracial populations of common bean. Crop Science. 35: 118-128.
· Soumare, M., G. Tack, and M.G. Verloo. 2003. Effects of a municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilization on plant growth in two tropical agricultural soils of Mali. Bioresource Technology. 86: 15-20.
· Taheri Asghari, A. 2010. Effects of water stress on morphological characteristics, proline and thymol content in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Journal Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research of Iran. 26(2): 239-251. (In Persian).
· Tarighol Eslami, M., R. Zarghami, M. Mashhadi Akbar Bojar, and M. Oweici. 2012. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and water deficit stress on physiological indices of corn (Zea mays L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 8(1): 161-174. (In Persian).
Tunctürk, R., A.E. Celen, and M. Tunctürk. 2011. The effects of nitrogen and sulphur fertilizers on the yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Turkish Journal of Field Crops. 16: 69–75.