تأثیر کود نیتروژن و باکتری محرک رشد بر شاخص‌های رشد چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L) در کشت تأخیری

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات چغندر قند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

درکشت تأخیری چغندرقند، استفاده از کود نیتروژن و باکتری محرک رشد، می‌توانند در تسریع رشد و جبران زمان از دست ‌رفته، اهمیت زیادی داشته باشند. برای بررسی این موضوع آزمایشی در سال 1397 به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با ۳ تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. عامل‌های مورد مطالعه شامل تاریخ کاشت با دو سطح (تاریخ کاشت معمول و تاریخ کاشت تأخیری) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی، کود نیتروژن با دو سطح مصرف کود نیتروژن بر اساس مقدار توصیه شده (300 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ۲۵ درصد کمتر از مقدار توصیه شده (225 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی و باکتری محرک رشد با دو سطح (مایه­زنی با باکتری و بدون باکتری) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی فرعی درنظر گرفته شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل شاخص سطح­برگ، تجمع ماده خشک کل، سرعت رشد، سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت فتوسنتز خالص بودند. بررسی این آزمایش نشان داد بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (05/3)، ماده خشک (2898 گرم بر مترمربع در واحد حرارتی)، سرعت رشد، سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت فتوسنتز خالص در هر دو تاریخ کاشت معمول و تأخیری، مربوط به تیمار کود نیتروژن براساس توصیه همراه با مایه­زنی باکتری بودند. کمترین مقدار این صفات در هر دو تاریخ کاشت با کود نیتروژن ۲۵ درصد کمتر ازتوصیه با عدم مایه زنی باکتری محرک رشد به­دست آمدند. عملکرد ریشه نیز در تیمار باکتری محرک رشد در دو تاریخ کاشت معمول و تأخیری نسبت به دیگر تیمارها به­طور معنی­داری 10 درصد برتری نشان داد. بر این اساس، به­نظر می‌رسد در کشت تأخیری برای جبران زمان از دست ‌رفته در گیاه چغندرقند استفاده تلفیقی از کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of N Fertilizer and Growth Stimulating Bacteria on Growth Traits of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under Delayed Sowing Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosratollah Nosrat 1
  • Morteza Goldani 2
  • Javad Rezaei 3
1 Ms.c. of Agronomy, Ferdosi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ferdosi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Sugar Beet Research Department Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Delayed planting of sugar beet, use of nitrogen fertilizer and growth promoting bacteria are important in accelerating growth and compensating time loss. To study this subject, a split split plot experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and 8 treatments in 2018 at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The factors under study consisted of planting date with two levels (regular planting, D1, and delayed planting, D2) as the main factor, nitrogen fertilizer with two levels (use of nitrogen fertilizer based on recommended rate, N1 and 25% less than recommended rate, N2) as a subfactors and bacterial growth stimulant with two levels (bacterial inoculation, B2, and without its use, B1) were considered as sub-sub- factors. Growth indices under study were leaf area index, total dry matter, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. In this study, highest leaf area index (3.5) and dry matter accumulation (2898 g.m-2) in thermal unit, as well as growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate under regular and delayed planting dates were due to the use of recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer and bacterial inoculation treatments. The least amounts of these traits were obtained at both planting dates and use of nitrogen fertilizer, 25% less than the recommendation, and without using bacteria. Root yield and sugar content sugar beet under treatment of bacterial and nitrogen use, based on recommended rate, showed 8 to 10% higher than other treatments, under both regular and delayed planting date. It seems that the combined use of chemical and biological fertilizers is useful in delayed sowing, to compensate delayed time loss planting of sugar beet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • growth rate
  • leaf area index
  • Nitro bacteria
  • Planting date
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