واکنش ژنوتیپ های گندم دوروم نسبت به تاریخ کاشت و تراکم های بذر در شرایط دیم کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم، معاونت سرارود، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به­منظور بررسی واکنش ارقام گندم دوروم نسبت به تاریخ کاشت و تراکم­های مختلف بذر تحت شرایط دیم طی آزمایشی در سال­های 95-1393 در سرارود کرمانشاه به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. سه ژنوتیپ گندم دوروم (SAJI، BCR و STJ) در سه تاریخ کاشت قبل از بارندگی مؤثر (مقدار و زمان وقوع بارندگی مؤثر به­ترتیب 2/33 و 5/34 میلی­متر و 26 مهر و 5 آبان ماه در دو سال آزمایش بود)، 15 روز بعد از بارندگی مؤثر و 30 روز بعد از بارندگی مؤثر و در چهار تراکم 250، 350، 450 و 550 بوته در متر مربع ارزیابی شدند. صفات تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، درصد نور دریافتی، درصد پروتئین دانه و محتوای کلروفیل اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین­های اثرات ساده نشان داد که تعداد سنبله در متر مربع در تاریخ کاشت قبل از بارندگی مؤثر نسبت به دو تاریخ کاشت دیگر بیشتر بود. مقایسه میانگین­های اثرات متقابل نشان داد که ژنوتیپ STJ در تراکم 250 دانه و تاریخ کاشت 15 روز بعد از بارندگی مؤثر بیشترین وزن هزار دانه، رقم SAJI در تراکم 550 دانه و تاریخ کاشت قبل از بارندگی مؤثر بیشترین عملکرد دانه و رقم SAJI در تراکم 450 دانه و تاریخ کاشت قبل از بارندگی مؤثر بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک را داشتند. بالاترین میزان کلروفیل کل و درصد پروتئین دانه از تراکم 350 بوته در مترمربع به­دست آمد. کمترین میزان کلروفیل از تاریخ کاشت 30 روز بعد از بارندگی مؤثر حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Durum Wheat Genotypes to Different Planting Dates and Plant Densities under Dryland Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Ghazvineh 1
  • Ali Reza Valadabadi 2
  • Abdol Vahab Abdolahi 3
  • Saeed Seyfzadeh 4
  • Hamid Reza Zakerin 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study was conducted to investigate the response of durum wheat cultivars to different planting dates and densities under rainfed conditions during the years 2014-2016 in Sararood, Kermanshah, using a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Three durum wheat genotypes (SAJI, BCR and STJ) with three sowing dates, prior to effective rainfall (the amount and time of effective rainfall were 33.2 and 34.5 mm, and 26 October, and 5 November for two years of experiment, respectively). 15 days after effective rainfall and 30 days after effective rainfall were evaluated for four densities of 250, 350, 450 and 550 plant per square meter. Traits like number of spikes per square meter, 1000 kernel weight, seed and biological yield, harvest index and absorbed radiation percentage were measured. The results of mean comparisons of simple effects showed that the number of spikes per square meter in the planting date before rainfall was more effective than two other planting dates. Biological yield and absorbed radiation percentage were 26.9 and 12.9 percent higher respectively in second year of experiment as compared to the first year. Comparison of interactions means showed that STJ genotype under 250 seeding density and 15 days sowing date after effective rainfall, produced highest 1000 kernel weight, while SAJI cultivar at 550 seeding density and planting date before effective rainfall showed the highest kernel yield. The SAJI cultivar showed highest biological yield under 450 seeding density and planting date before effective rainfall. For all three genotypes, the highest percentage of radiation absorption was observed when sowing date used before rainy season using 450 and 550 seeding densities. In this study all genotypes showed the highest traits values at first planting date and under 450 seeding density. The highest values of protein and chlorophyll content were observed using 350 seeding density.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Absorbed radiation
  • Effective rainfall
  • Grain yield
  • Wheat genotypes
  • Protein content
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