اثر فاصله ردیف کاشت و مصرف علف‌کش‌ها بر کنترل علف‌های هرز، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و عملکرد دانه و روغن کلزا (Brassica napus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه گنبد و محقق بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی مرکز تحقیقات و اموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران

3 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

چکیده

کلزا یکی از مهم‌ترین گیاهان دانه روغنی محسوب می‌شود. علف‌های هرز از جمله مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکننده تولید کلزا هستند که کمیت و کیفیت محصول را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهند. به‌­منظور بررسی تأثیر فاصله ردیف و مصرف علف‌کش‌ها بر رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و عملکرد کلزا، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 97-1396 در ایستگاه تحقیقات بایع‌کلای شهرستان نکا اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل آرایش کاشت در دو سطح یک و دو ردیفه و کنترل علف­های هرز در 7 سطح شامل علف‌کش تریفلورالین (ترفلان EC‌48%) 5/2‌ لیتر در هکتار قبل از کاشت و مخلوط با خاک، کوئین‌مراک ‌+‌ متازاکلر (بوتیزان استار ‌SC‌41.6%) به ‌میزان 5/2‌ لیتر در هکتار پیش‌رویشی، ترکیب تریفلورالین 5/2‌ لیتر در هکتار با کوئین‌مراک‌ +‌ متازاکلر 5/2‌ لیتر در هکتار، کلوپیرالید (لونترل SL‌30%) 1‌ لیتر در هکتار ‌+ هالوکسی‌فوپ‌آرمتیل (گالانت سوپر EC‌10.8%) 8/0‌ لیتر در هکتار در مرحله 2 تا 4 برگی علف‌های هرز، پاراکوات (گراماکسون SL‌20%) 2‌ لیتر در هکتار در مرحله 4 تا 6 برگی علف‌های هرز و تیمار وجین و عدم کنترل علف‌های هرز بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با تغییر در آرایش کاشت و استفاده از ترکیب تریفلورالین با کوئین‌مراک‌ +‌ متازاکلر و یا پاراکوات به­صورت هدایت شده در کشت دو ردیفه، محتوای کلروفیل کلزا به‌ترتیب به میزان 06/38 و 11/34 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافتند. همچنین، زیست توده علف‌های هرز به‌ترتیب 16/87 و 97/94 درصد کاهش و عملکرد دانه نیز به میزان 4/73 و 79/76 درصد افزایش یافت که خود موجب افزایش عملکرد روغن نیز گردید.به این ترتیب با اصلاح الگوی کاشت کلزا می‌توان با استفاده از علف‌کش‌های پاراکوات به‌صورت هدایت شده و یا ترکیب علف‌کش تریفلورالین با کوئین‌مراک‌+‌متازاکلر علاوه بر کنترل علف‌های هرز، موجب افزایش عملکرد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Row Spacing and Herbicide Application on Weed Control, Photosynthetic Pigments and Rapeseed Grain and Oil Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • morteza noralizadeh otaghsara 1
  • Ali Nakhzari Moghadam 2
  • Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari 2
  • Mehdi Mollashahi 2
  • Valiollah Rameah 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Agrotechnology, University of Gonbad-Kavous and Researcher, Plant Protection Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Mazandran, AREEO, Sari, Iran.
2 Assistant Professors of Plant Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Mazandran, AREEO, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rapessed is one of the most important oilseed crops. Weeds, also are most important factors that limit the production of the oil crops and greatly affect the quantity and quality of their extracted oils. To investigate the effect of row spacing and herbicide application on photosynthetic pigments and rapeseed yield, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2017-18 at Bayekola Research Station, Neka, Mazandaran. Factors were planting arrangement in two levels )one and two-row plantings( and weed control in 7 levels of  application of herbicides consisting of Trifluralin (Treflan) 2.5 l.ha-1 before planting and mixed with soil, Quinmerac + Metazachlor (Butisan Star) 2.5 l.ha-1 pre-emergence, Trifluralin 2.5 l/ha before planting + Quinmerac + Metazachlor 2.5 l.ha-1 pre-emergence, Chlopyralid (lontrel) 1 l.ha-1 + Haloxyfop-R-Methyl (Super Gallant) 0.8 l.ha-1 at 2 to 4 weeds leaf stage, Paraquat (Gramaxon) 2 l.ha-1 at 4 to 6 weeds leaf stages, weed control and without weed control. The results showed that by changing the planting arrangement and using combination of Trifluralin with Quinmerac + Metazachlor and/or application of Paraquat (as a guided herbicide) in two-row culture, the rapeseed chlorophyll content increased by 38.06% and 34.11% as compared to without weed control. Also, weed dry weight decreased by 87.16% and 94.97%, and rapeseed grain yield increased by 73.4% and 76.79%, respectively, which resulted in increasing crops,s extracted oil. It can be concluded that by modifying the canola planting pattern we can increase canola,s oil yield, and application of guided herbicide or combination of Trifluralin with Quinmerac + Metazachlor, to control weeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Paraquat
  • Planting arrangement
  • Treflan
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