نقش کاربرد کود زیستی فسفره و تریپل‌سوپر فسفات بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، غلظت کادمیم و فسفر دانه آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 گروه خاک‌شناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هزینه بالای کودهای شیمیایی مورد استفاده در بخش کشاورزی و مشکلات محیط‌زیست ناشی از استفاده آنها، لزوم تجدیدنظر در روش­های مرسوم تغذیه گیاهان را آشکار می­سازد. مصرف تلفیقی کودهای زیستی همراه با کودهای شیمیایی در راستای کشاورزی پایدار یکی از راه­های اساسی به نظر می­رسد. در همین راستا این پژوهش به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه آزمایشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اهواز در سال زراعی 98-1397 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول مقادیر مختلف کود تریپل سوپرفسفات در سه سطح (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و فاکتور دوم کود زیستی فسفره در سه سطح (صفر، 100 و 200 گرم در هکتار) بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد اثر سطوح مختلف کود زیستی فسفره و تریپل سوپرفسفات بر تمام صفات اندازه‎گیری شده معنی­دار شد ولی اثر متقابل تیمار‎ها معنی­دار نبود. بر اساس نتایج به­دست آمده در این پژوهش، بالاترین عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، درصد روغن دانه، قطر طبق، تعداد دانه در طبق و غلظت فسفر دانه در شرایط کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار تریپل سوپرفسفات به همراه 200 گرم در هکتار کودزیستی فسفره به­دست آمد. کمترین پوکی دانه نیز با کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار تریپل سوپرفسفات به همراه 200 گرم در هکتار کودزیستی فسفره حاصل شد. به­نظر می‎رسد کود تریپل سوپرفسفات، به­دلیل داشتن ناخالصی از جمله عناصر سنگین، باعث افزایش 54 درصدی غلظت عنصر کادمیم در خاک می­گردد، اما افزایش سطوح مصرف کود زیستی فسفر در خاک موجب کاهش 45 درصدی تجمع غلظت کادمیم دانه می‎شود. با توجه به این نتایج کاربرد 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار تریپل سوپرفسفات و 200 گرم در هکتار کود زیستی فسفره نسبت به سایر تیمارها باعث افزایش عملکرد کمّی و جذب عناصر در آفتابگردان شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Bio Phosphate Fertilizer and Triple Super Phosphate Application on Yield, Yield Components, Phosphorus and Cadmium Concentration of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nadia Nisi 1
  • Alireza Shokohfar 2
  • Khoshnaz Payandeh 3
1 M.sc. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The high cost of chemical fertilizers used in agriculture and the environmental problems due to their use reveal the need to reappraise conventional plant nutrition practices. Integrated use of biofertilizers combined with synthetic fertilizers is one of the essential sustainable agricultural strategies. To this end, this study was carried out by using a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the experimental field of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch during 2018 cropping season. The first factor was different amounts of triple superphosphate fertilizer with three levels (0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1) and the second factor was phosphorus biofertilizer also with three levels (0, 100 and 200 g.ha-1). Result of analysis of variance revealed that the effect of different levels of biophosphorus fertilizer and triple superphosphate on all measured characteristics were significant but the interaction effect of treatments was not significant. Based on the results of this study, the highest seed yield, 1000 seed weight, seed oil percentage, head diameter and number of seed per head and lowest empty seed belonged to the use of 100 kg.ha-1 triple superphosphate with 200 g.ha-1 biophosphorus fertilizer. It seems triple superphosphate fertilizer to increase the concentration of soil cadmium by 54%, due to its impurities, including heavy elements, but increasing the levels of phosphorus fertilizer in the soil reduces the concentration of cadmium by 45%. According to these results, the application of 100 kg.ha-1 of triple superphosphate and 200 g.ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer per hectare, compared to other treatments, may increase seed yield and absorption of elements of sunflower in this region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizer
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • Contamination
  • Head diameter
  • Oil concentration
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