تأثیر گیاهان پوششی زمستانه بر تراکم و زیست‌توده علف‌های هرز و عملکرد سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته‌ی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر گیاهان پوششی زمستانه بر تراکم و زیست­توده علف­های هرز و عملکرد سیب زمینی، آزمایشی در سال 1397 در شهرستان نمین (روستای ینگجه ملامحمدرضا) واقع در استان اردبیل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت گیاهان پوششی چاودار (Secale cereal L.)، ماشک­گل­خوشه­ای (Vicia villosa Roth.)، خلر (Lathyrus sativa L.) و ماشک لامعی (Vicia panonica L.) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین زیست­توده خشک گیاهان پوششی از تیمار چاودار (696 گرم در متر مربع) به­دست آمدند. همچنین، کمترین تراکم در نمونه­برداری اول و دوم (به­ترتیب 3/9 و 6/23 بوته در مترمربع) از تیمار چاودار حاصل شد. کمترین زیست­توده تر و خشک کل علف­های هرز در نمونه­برداری اول (به­ترتیب 8/175 و 2/52 گرم در مترمربع) مربوط به تیمار چاودار بود. علاوه بر این، کمترین زیست­توده تر و خشک کل علف­های هرز در نمونه­برداری دوم (به­ترتیب 377 و 134 گرم در مترمربع) از تیمار چاودار به­دست آمدند. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد بیشترین زیست­توده تر و خشک علف­های هرز در هر دو نمونه­برداری مربوط به تیمارهای ماشک­گل­خوشه­ای و خلر بودند. عملکرد غده سیب­زمینی تحت تأثیر بقایای گیاهان پوششی قرار نگرفت و تیمارهای گیاهان پوششی از نظر تولید غده­ی سیب­زمینی دارای اختلاف معنی­داری نبودند. از نتایج چنین استنباط می­گردد که گیاه پوششی چاودار تأثیر چشم­گیری در کاهش تراکم و زیست­توده تر و خشک علف­های هرز در دو مرحله نمونه­برداری داشت، اما لزوماً کاهش زیست­توده علف­های هرز بیانگر تأثیر مثبت گیاهان پوششی در کوتاه­مدت بر روی بهبود عملکرد محصولات زراعی نمی­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Plant Density, Biomass of Weeds and Potato Yield (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Rostami Yangjeh 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim 2
  • Fatemeh Ahmadnia 3
  • Leyli Nabati Souha 4
1 M.Sc. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of winter cover crops on plant density, biomass of weeds and potato yield an experiment based on complete randomized block design with three replications was performed at Yingjeh Mullah Mohammad Reza village in Namin, Ardabil, Iran, in 2018. Treatments were rye (Secale cereal L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativa L.) and Hungarian vetch (Vicia panonica L.). The results showed that the highest dry biomass was obtained from rye treatment (696 g.m-2), the lowest plant densities from its first and second sampling (9.3 and 23.6 plants per square meter, respectively. The lowest fresh and dry weed biomass from first sampling (175.8 and 52.2 g.m-2, respectively) were due to rye treatment. In addition, the lowest fresh and dry biomass of all weeds in the second sample indicated (377 and 134 g.m-2, respectively) were related to rye treatment. Also, the results indicated that the highest and lowest biomasses of weeds in both samples were related to the treatment of hairy vetch and chickling pea. The yield of potato tuber was not affected by the cover crops residues, and the effect of the cover crops did not different potato tuber yield significantly. The results show that rye has a significant effect on reducing the density, fresh and dry biomass of weeds in two sampling stages, but reduction in biomass of weeds does not necessarily indicate a positive effect of cover crops in the short term on improving crop yields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Residues
  • Rye
  • Weeds control
  • Yield
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