اثر کودهای نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم بر ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه کینوا (.Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

اثر مقادیر مختلف کودهای نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه رقم Titicaca کینوا، طی اجرای آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال 1398 بررسی شد. هفت ترکیب کودی شامل عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم (180:150:120، 150:125:100، 120:100:80، 90:75:60، 60:50:40، 30:25:20 N,P,K بر مبنای کیلوگرم در هکتار به همراه عدم کاربرد کود) و صفات مورد بررسی شامل از لحاظ ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه جانبی، طول پانیکول، عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، محتوای رنگیزه­های فتوسنتزی، شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، پروتئین دانه و عناصر غذایی دانه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمار کود شیمیایی بر همه صفات اندازه­گیری شده معنی­دار گردید. بیشترین میانگین کلروفیل a، b، کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئید، شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول و محتوای پروتئین دانه از کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم با ترکیب 120:100:80 کیلوگرم در هکتار حاصل شد، اما در مورد صفات کلروفیل a و شاخص سطح برگ اختلاف معنی­داری با ترکیب 90:75:60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نداشت. در این مطالعه همچنین بیشترین تعداد شاخه جانبی، طول پانیکول، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه از ترکیب کودی 120:100:80 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­دست آمد که در مورد صفات طول پانیکول و عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی­داری با ترکیب 90:75:60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نداشت. بنابراین، می­توان نتیجه گرفت که ترکیب کودهای نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم با نسبت 90:75:60 کیلوگرم در هکتار منجر به حصول بیشترین عملکرد دانه کینوا و همچنین پرهیز از مصرف بی­رویه کودهای شیمیایی در شرایط آب و هوایی مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizers on Morpho-Physiological Characteristics and Seed Yield of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Abdolahpour 1
  • Enayatolah Tohidi Nejad 2
  • Amin Pasandi Pour 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of different levels of NPK nutrition on some morpho-physiological characteristics and seed yield of quinoa, a randomized complete block design experiment was carried out in Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2019. In this study, response of quinoa (Titicaca variety) to seven fertilizer combinations, consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N: K: P, 30:25:20, 60:50:40, 90:75:60, 120:100:80, 150:125:100, 180:150:120 kg.ha-1) were investigated for plant height, number of branch, panicle length, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area index, crop growth rate, seed protein content and seed nutrients. The results indicated that the effect of NPK nutrition treatments on all measured traits were significant. The highest mean of Chl a, Chl b, Chl a+b, carotenoid, LAI, CGR and seed protein content belonged to combination of 120: 100: 80 which was not significantly different from combination of 90: 75: 60, in terms of Chl a and LAI. In this study, the highest mean of panicle lengths, number of branches, 1000 seed weight and seed yield were recorded for combination of 120: 100: 80 which were not significantly different from combination of 90: 75: 60, in terms of panicle length and seed yield. According to the results, thus, it can be concluded that combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers with a ratio of 90: 75: 60 are appropriate to achieve maximum seed yield for research location under Kerman climatic conditions and avoid overuse of chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • crop growth rate
  • Seed yield
  • Protein
  • Quinoa
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