بررسی فتوسنتز، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ (.Carthamus tinctorius L) در پاسخ به تنش توأم شوری و خشکی در مرحله رشد رویشی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی سیستم های کشاورزی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی سیستم های کشاورزی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران

4 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم و زراعی باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق به­منظور بررسی پاسخ گلرنگ به تنش­های شوری، خشکی و تنش همزمان شوری- خشکی و سهم هر یک در کاهش عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و فتوسنتز گیاه انجام شد. بدین منظور آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های یک­بار خرد شده و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در اراضی مرکز آموزش کشاورزی کبوترآباد اصفهان در سال­های 95-1394 و 96-1395 اجرا شد. در این مطالعه گلرنگ بهاره رقم صفه در واکنش به چهار سطح شوری آب آبیاری (5/2، 5، 10 و 15 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و چهار سطح آبیاری (100، 80، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه­ای) در مرحله رشد رویشی این گیاه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش سطوح شوری و خشکی به­طور معنی­داری از میانگین اکثر صفات مورد بررسی کاسته شد، به­طوری­که شدیدترین تیمارهای خشکی (آبیاری بر اساس 40 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه) و شوری (15 دسی زیمنس بر متر) کمترین مقادیر صفات را به خود اختصاص دادند. با افزایش شوری، درصد روغن دانه کاهش یافت، لیکن این کاهش (4/7 درصد) فقط در بالاترین سطح شوری آب (15 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) معنی­دار بود. بالاترین سطح تنش همزمان خشکی و شوری موجب کاهش هر چه بیشتر عملکرد دانه (13/87 درصد کاهش) در مقایسه با بالاترین سطح هر یک از تنش­های خشکی (40/71 درصد کاهش) و شوری (56/55 درصد کاهش) نسبت به تیمار شاهد (بدون تنش خشکی و شوری) شد و سهم تنش خشکی در مقایسه با تنش شوری در کاهش عملکرد (به­ترتیب 40/71 و 56/55 درصد) به مراتب بیشتر بود. لذا، به­طورکلی با در نظر گرفتن حداقل افت عملکرد دانه، آبیاری معادل 80 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه با شوری 5 دسی­زیمنس بر متر در مرحله رشد رویشی تولید گلرنگ امکان پذیر می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Photosynthesis of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Response to Combined Salinity and Drought Stresses at Vegetative Growth Stage

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marziyeh Esmaeilzadeh 1
  • Hosein Babazadeh 2
  • Hormozd Naghavi 3
  • Ali Saremi 2
  • Gholamhosein Shiresmaeili 4
1 Ph.D. Student. Department of Agricultural Systems Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Agricultural Systems Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 -Associate Prof., Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Crop Sciences and Horticultural Research, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The research was carried out to evaluate the response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to salinity, drought and combined salinity- drought stresses at its vegetative stage and share of their effects on reduction of yield, yield components and photosynthesis of plant. For this purpose, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was carried out at Agricultural Education Center of Kabotarabad- Isfahan in 2016-2017. In this study, response of spring safflower (Sofeh variety) to four salinity stress levels (2.5, 5, 10 and 15 dS/m) and four drought stress levels (100%, 80%, 60% and 40% F.C.) at vegetative growth stage were evaluated. The results showed that mean values of most traits were significantly reduced with increasing salinity and drought stress levels, in such a way that severe drought (Irrigation based on 40% field capacity) and salinity (15 dS/m) treatments produced lowest values for all traits. Seed oil content decreased with increasing salinity but this decrease (7.4%) was significant only at highest salinity level (15 dS/m). The highest level of combined salinity-drought stress decreased seed yield (87.13% decrease) more than the highest level of each of drought (71.40% decrease) and salinity (55.56% decrease) stresses as compared to control treatment (without drought and salinity stress), and the share of drought stress in reduction of seed yield was higher than the salinity stress (71.40% and 55.56%, respectively). Thus, growing safflower with minimum loss of seed yield, by irrigation with 80% F.C. and water salinity with 5 dS/m at the vegetative growth stage is possible.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • leaf area index
  • Net photosynthesis
  • oil percentage
  • Safflower
  • Seed yield
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