تأثیر تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک، اسید سالیسیلیک و متانول و فرسودگی پس از برداشت بر عملکرد دانه و بنیه بذور حاصله کلزا رقم Hyola401

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی صفی آباد دزفول، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی، محلول پاشی با اسید آسکوربیک، اسید سالیسیلیک و متانول و فرسودگی بذر پس از برداشت بر عملکرد دانه و بنیه بذر کلزا، دو آزمایش مجزا به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار بر روی گیاه مادری در شرایط مزرعه­ای و به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با توجه به شرایط انبارداری انجام گردید. در شرایط مزرعه­ای فاکتور اصلی در سه سطح شامل آبیاری پس از 60 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک به­عنوان شاهد (آبیاری مطلوب)، قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و قطع آبیاری در مرحله خورجین‏دهی و عامل فرعی نیز در 10 سطح، شامل (اسید آسکوربیک با غلظت 100، 200 و 300 میلی­گرم در لیتر، سالیسیلیک اسید با غلظت 100، 200 و 300 میکرومول، متانول با غلظت 10، 20 و 30 درصد حجمی، و شاهد به­صورت محلول­پاشی با آب مقطر) بودند. بذور حاصل از گیاه مادری نیز در شرایط بدون انبارداری (شاهد) و یک ماه انبارداری در دمای 40 درجه سلسیوس مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. کاربرد اسید آسکوربیک (300 میلی­گرم در لیتر) در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه به میزان 29 درصد نسبت به عدم کاربرد مواد مؤثر بر رشد در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب گردید. اثر تیمارهای مزرعه­ای گیاه مادری بر وزن ریشه­چه، وزن ساقه­چه، سرعت جوانه­زنی روزانه، متوسط جوانه­زنی روزانه، شاخص وزنی قدرت بذر و کارایی استفاده از ذخایر تحت شرایط بدون انبارداری و یک ماه انبارداری معنی­دار بودند. قطع آبیاری گیاه مادری، کاهش وزن ریشه­چه و ساقه­چه را هم در شرایط انبارداری و هم بدون انبارداری به­دنبال داشت. در شرایط بدون انبارداری و یک ماه انبارداری بیشترین درصد جوانه­زنی از کاربرد 300 میلی­گرم در لیتر اسیدآسکوربیک در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب حاصل شد. در شرایط یک ماه انبارداری نیز حداقل درصد جوانه­زنی مربوط به عدم کاربرد مواد مؤثر بر رشد و قطع آبیاری در مرحله­ گلدهی بود. تحت شرایط یک ماه انبارداری بذور حاصل از گیاهان مادری محلول­پاشی شده با اسید آسکوربیک در تمام تیمارهای آبیاری از شاخص وزنی قدرت بذر بیشتری برخوردار بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Drought Stress and Foliar Application of Ascorbic acid, Salicylic acid, Methanol and Post-Harvest Storage on Seed Yield and Seed Vigor of Hyola401 Rapeseed Cultivar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedahmad Kalantarahmadi
  • Ahmad Ali Shoushi Dezfouli
Assistant Professor, Safiabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Dezful, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of drought stress and foliar application of ascorbic acid, salicylic acid and methanol, and post-harvest seed deterioration, two separate experiments were carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications on maternal plants in field conditions and a factorial based on completely randomized design considering by using seed under storage conditions. The main plots were consisted of three irrigation levels, irrigation after 60 mm evaporation from basin, considered as control treatment (optimum irrigation), cessation of irrigation at flowering and silique stages, and sub plots consisted of 10 levels of foliar application, (100, 200, 300 mg.lit-1 ascorbic acid, 100, 200, 300 μmol salicylic acid, 10, 20, 30 vol% methanol and the foliar application with distilled water as control treatment). Seeds obtained of maternal plant were evaluated under no-storage (control) and storage at 40°C for one month. The results showed that foliar application of ascorbic acid (300 mg.lit-1) increased seed yield by 29% under optimum irrigation as compared with non foliar application under the same irrigation condition. Cutting off irrigation of maternal plant decreased radical and plumule weights under both no-storage and one-month storage conditions. The maximum germination percentage belonged to foliar application of ascorbic acid (300 mg.lit-1) under optimum irrigation condition at both no-storage one-month stored seed. The minimum germination percentage belonged to no use of growth regulators application and cessation irrigation at flowering stage. Maternal plants which sprayed with ascorbic acid contained the highest seed weight vigor index at all irrigation treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • deterioration
  • Drought stress
  • Seed germination
  • Storage
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