اثر مقادیر بیوچار و اسیدهیومیک بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه ذرت (Zea mays L) هیبرید سینگل‌کراس 704 تحت تنش کمبود آب

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

اثر کاربرد مقادیر مختلف بیوچار و اسید هیومیک بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه ذرت هیبرید سینگل کراس 704 تحت تنش کمبود آب طی آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال­های زراعی 97-1396 و 98-1397 در مزرعه­ای واقع در شهرستان اهواز ارزیابی شد. کرت اصلی شامل تنش کمبود آب با سه سطح آبیاری، پس از تخلیه 30، 40 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، به­ترتیب به­عنوان آبیاری مطلوب، تنش ملایم و تنش شدید، کرت فرعی شامل بیوچار با 2 سطح (شاهد، عدم کاربرد بیوچار) و کاربرد 4 تن در هکتار بیوچار و کرت فرعی فرعی شامل اسید هیومیک با 4 سطح (شاهد، عدم کاربرد اسید هیومیک)، کاربرد 2، 4 و 6 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات برهمکنش تنش کمبود آب و بیوچار، همچنین تنش کمبود آب و اسید هیومیک بر عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال، شاخص کلروفیل فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و کاتالاز در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بودند. در شرایط تنش شدید، عملکرد دانه (36 درصد) تعداد دانه در بلال (22 درصد) و شاخص سطح برگ (36/30 درصد) کاهش و میزان فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دیسموتاز (37 درصد) افزایش یافت. اسید هیومیک بر تمام صفات آزمایش اثر معنی­داری داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (18/8995 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به تیمار آبیاری پس از تخلیه 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و کاربرد 4 تن در هکتار بیوچار بود. در مجموع استفاده از 4 لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک در شرایط تنش رطوبتی متوسط به­دلیل نقش مثبتی که بر رشد و افزایش 42 درصدی عملکرد نسبت به تیمار تنش شدید و عدم مصرف اسید هیومیک داشت می­تواند در شرایط خشک و نیمه­خشک برای صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب و کاهش اثرات تنش کمبود آب قابل توصیه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biochar and Humic Acid Rates on some Phophysiological Characteristics and Grain Yield SC704 Corn (Zea mays L.) Hybrid Under Water Deficit stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Armaghan Charkhab
  • Many Mojaddam
  • Shahram Lack
  • Tayyeb Sakinejad
  • Mohammad Reza Dadnia
Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of different rates of biochar and humic acid applications on physiological characteristics and grain yield of single cross 704 hybrid corn under water deficit stress, a split split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, was conducted during two years (2017-19) at Ahvaz. The main plot devoted to water deficit stress, with three levels irrigation (after depleting 30, 40, and 50% of field capacity as optimum irrigation, moderate stress, and severe stress, respectively) and sub-plot to biochar with 2 levels, non-application of biochar (control) and application of 4 tons per hectare of biochar, and the sub-sub plots to humic acid with 4 levels non-application of humic acid (control), and application of 2, 4, and 6 liters per hectare of humic acid. The results showed that the interaction effect of water shortage by biochar stress and water shortage by humic acid stress on grain yield, 1000-grain weight, number of grains per ear, superoxide dismutase, chlorophyll index and catalase were significant at 1% probability level. Under severe stress conditions grain yield (36.54%), number of grain per ear (36%) and leaf area index (30.36%) decreased and activity of superoxide dismutase (37.7%) increased. Acidic acid had a significant effect on all traits under study. The highest grain yield (8995.18 kg.ha-1) was related to irrigation treatment after 40% depletion of field capacity and application of 4 tons per hectare of biochar. Based the results obtained application of 4 liters per hectare of humic acid under moderate moisture stress conditions, could be recommended in arid and semi-arid conditions to save water consumption and reduce the effects of water deficit stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll index
  • Grain yield
  • Humic acid
  • Optimal irrigation
  • superoxide dismutase
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