تأثیر رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و محتوای عناصر ریزمغذی برنج قهوه‌ای و سفید دو رقم هاشمی و گیلانه

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

3 دانشیار،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به­دلیل محدودیت در فراهمی آب در زراعت برنج، از خشک و تر کردن تناوبی به جای غرقاب­نمودن دایمی جهت کاهش مصرف آب در شالیزارها استفاده می­گردد. بدین منظور با هدف بررسی تاثیر روش­های مختلف آبیاری و مقادیر کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و محتوای عناصر ریزمغذی برنج قهوه­ای و سفید در دو رقم هاشمی و گیلانه در سال­های زراعی 96-1395 و 97-1396 به­صورت کرت­های دو بار خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در رشت اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آبیاری غرقاب، آبیاری با فاصله 7 روز و 14 روز در کرت اصلی، مصرف 50، 75 و 100 گیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن در کرت فرعی و ارقام هاشمی و گیلانه در کرت فرعی فرعی قرار داده شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سال بر عملکرد و تعداد خوشه در مترمربع معنی­دار شد. برهمکنش سه عامل مورد مطالعه بر عملکرد در سال 1396 و 1397، تعداد خوشه در مترمربع در سال 1396، و محتوای عناصر ریزمغذی دانه از نظر آماری معنی­دار گردید. افزایش فاصله آبیاری تعداد خوشه در مترمربع، تعداد دانه در خوشه، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد شلتوک را کاهش داد، در حالی که مصرف 75 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن این صفات را در هر سه سطح آبیاری در مقایسه با سطح 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن افزایش داد. برتری عملکرد و تعداد دانه در خوشه و تعداد خوشه در مترمربع بالاتری را در رقم گیلانه نسبت به هاشمی در هر سه سطح آبیاری نشان داد. افزایش فاصله آبیاری بر محتوای عناصر ریزمغذی در برنج قهوه ای و سفید افزود. دو سطح کودی 75 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیز این صفات را نسبت به سطح دیگر کود نیتروژن افزایش دادند. در آبیاری با فاصله 14 روز و مصرف 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن بیش­ترین محتوای Zn، Cu، Fe و Mn در برنج قهوه­ای و سفید مشاهده شد. مصرف 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن در هر دو رقم توانست در هر سه سطح آبیاری، عملکرد کمّی و کیفی دانه را در مقایسه با دو سطح دیگر کود نیتروژن افزایش دهد و سطح مناسبی از کود برای تعدیل اثرات مضر افزایش فواصل آبیاری باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Different Irrigation Regimes and N Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and the Content of Micronutrients in Brown and White Rice (cv. Hashemi and Gilaneh)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Eisapour Nakhjiri 1
  • Majid Ashouri 2
  • Seyyed Mostafa Sadeghi 3
  • Naser Mohammadian Roushan 2
  • Mojtaba Rezaei 4
1 Ph.D. student of Agronomy, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
4 Research Assistant, Rice Research Institue of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rashat, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to the limit of water availability in rice fields, alternate wetting and drying irrigation are used instead of continuous submergence to reduce water consumption in rice fields. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes and N fertilizer rates on yield, and the content of micronutrients in brown and white rice at Rashat during cropping seasons of 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in which water regimes continuous submergence (I1), 7 (I2) and 15 (I3) day interval irrigation were asseigned as main factor and nitrogen fertilizer levels (50 (N1), 75 (N2), and 100 (N3) kg.ha-1) as sub factor, and cultivars, Gilanh (C1) and Hashemi (C2) as sub sub factor. Results showed that the effect of year on yield and number of panicle per m2 was significant. The interaction of different irrigation treatments and N fertilizer and cultivar on the number of panicle per m2 in 2017, yield in 2017 and 2018, and micronutrient content were significant. Increasing the irrigation intervals decreased number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, weight of 1000 grain, and yield, while the consumption of 75 and 100 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer increased these traits in all three irrigation treatments compared to the level of 50 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer. Gilaneh in all irrigation treatments showed higher yield, number of panicle per m2, and number of seed in panicle. Also, increasing of the irrigation intervals increased the content of micronutrients in brown and white rice seeds. The consumption of 75 and 100 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer increased these traits as compared to the other levels of nitrogen fertilizers. The highest content of Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn was observed in brown and white rice at irrigation interval at 14 days and 100 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer application. The consumption of 100 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer increased the quantitative and qualitative grain yield of both cultivars as compared to the other two levels of nitrogen fertilizer and to irrigation regimes. Proper level of fertilizer would compensate the adverse effects of increasing irrigation intervals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rice؛ N fertilizer؛ content of Cu
  • zn
  • Fe and Mn in seed؛ Water stress
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