تأثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی و بیوچار بر عملکرد کمّی، کیفی و خصوصیات ریشه در توتون (Nicotiana tobacum L.) گرمخانه‌ای تحت شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

توتون به­عنوان یک محصول با ارزش زراعی در بیش از صد کشور دنیا و در شرایط آب و هوایی مختلف کشت شده و در اقتصاد برخی از کشورها نقش مهمی ایفا می‌کند. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر به همراه بیوچار بر عملکرد برگ، خصوصیات ریشه و ترکیبات فیتوشیمیایی توتون تحت شرایط دیم طی دو سال زراعی 1396-1395 و 1397-1396 در مزرعه مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش توتون تیرتاش واقع در استان مازندران انجام گردید. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه فاکتور در چهار تکرار شامل بیوچار در سه سطح (صفر، 4 و 8 تن در هکتار)، میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر هر کدام در دو سطح (با کاربرد و بدون کاربرد) اجرا شد. بر اساس نتایج، کاربرد 4 تن بیوچار در هکتار موجب افزایش عملکرد تر و خشک به میزان 26%، وزن خشک ریشه 44%، وزن تر ریشه 37%، طول ریشه 41%، نیکوتین 3%، قند احیا 24% و نسبت قند احیا به نیکوتین 21% در مقایسه با سطح صفر آن شد. اثر میکویزا و ازتوباکتر بر عملکرد برگ افزایشی اما غیرمعنی‌دار بود. بیشترین تاثیر ازتوباکتر با 17% افزایش بر محتوای نیکوتین برگ بود. با توجه به عدم وجود اختلاف معنی‌دار بین سطوح کاربرد 4 و 8 تن بیوچار در هکتار در اغلب صفات مورد ارزیابی با لحاظ جنبه‌های اقتصادی، کاربرد 4 تن بیوچار در هکتار به همراه میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر با هدف کاهش اثرات منفی ناشی از کمبود آب در مناطق کشت دیم توتون و بهبود رشد آن توصیه می‎‌گردد. همچنین کاربرد ازتوباکتر نیز می‌تواند به­عنوان راهکاری مطلوب در جهت افزایش محتوای نیکوتین برگ تلقی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Biofertilizer and Biochar Applications on Quantitative, Qualitative Yields and Root Characteristics of Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) Under Dryland Farming Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Mesbah 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ardakani 2
  • Ali Moghaddam 3
  • Farnaz Rafiei 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Agronomy Department, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Agronomy Department, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Tobacco is cultivated as a valuable crop in more than one hundred countries in different climatic conditions and plays an important role in the economies of some countries.This study was performed to evaluate the effect of mycorrhiza and azotobacter with application of biocahr on tobacco leaf yield, root characteristics and phytochemical components under rainfed conditions for two growing seasons at 2016 and 2017 at the Research Farm of Tirtash Tobacco Research and Education Center of Mazandaran province, Iran. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications and three treatments was performed. Treatments consisted of biochar (B) at three levels (0, 4 and 8 ton/ha), mycorrhiza (M), and azotobacter (A) both at two levels (without and with application). Application of 4 ton/ha biocahr increased fresh yield by 26%, cured yield 26%, root dry weight 44%, root fresh weigth 37%, root length 41%, nicotine 3%, while reduced sugar content 24% and sugar to nicotine ratio by 21% as compared to zero level of biochar application. The effect of mycorrhiza and azotobacter application on tobacco leaf yield but it was not significant, however, azotobacter had the most significant effect on nicotine content (17%). There was a positive and significant correlation between root characteristics and tobacco leaf yield. Due to the lack of significant differences between levels of 4 and 8 tons per hectare of biochar in most of the evaluated traits in terms of economic approach, the use of 4 tons per hectare of biochar along with mycorrhiza and Azotobacter to reduce the adverse of low water effects in rainfed farms and ameliorate the tobacco growth is recommended. Also azotobacter application is considered as desirable factor to increase of nicotine in tobacco.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azotobacter
  • Biochar
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Tobacco
  • Yield
  • Rainfed
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