بررسی قابلیت برخی از گیاهان پوششی در مهار علف های هرز

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 دانش آموخته‌ی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

بررسی تأثیر برخی از گیاهان پوششی در مهار علف­های­هرز طی آزمایشی در پاییز 1397 در شهرستان نمین واقع در استان اردبیل در دو مرحله با سه تکرار اجرا شد. مرحله اول آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی شامل فاکتـور کشت گیـاهان پوششی زمستانه (چاودار (Secale cereale L.)، ماشک گل خوشه­ای (Vicia villosa Roth.)، خللر (Lathyrus sativa L.) و ماشک لامعی (Vicia panonica L.)) بود. مرحله دوم آزمایش در قالب طرح فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی مشتمل بر فاکتور زمان­های نمونه­برداری (قبل از خاتمه یافتن رشد گیاهان پوششی (حضور سبز گیاهان پوششی) و 40 روز پس از خاتمه یافتن رشد گیاهان پوششی (بقایای گیاهان پوششی)) انجام پذیرفت. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین تراکم کل علف­های­هرز مربوط به تیمارهای ماشک گل­خوشه­ای و خللر (به­ترتیب 5/30 و 27 بوته در مترمربع) و همچنین کمترین تراکم در تیمارهای چاودار و ماشک لامعی (به­ترتیب 5/17 و 22 بوته در مترمربع) برآورد شدند. همچنین، نتایج نشـان داد که بیشترین تراکم کل علف­های هرز تحت تأثیـر زمان نمــونه­برداری از دومین زمــان نمونه­برداری (33/30 بوته در مترمربع) در حضور بقایای حاصل از گیـاهان پوششی و کمترین تـراکم کل علف­های هرز (16/18 بوته در مترمربع) از اولین زمان نمونه­برداری در حضور سبز گیاهان پوششی حاصل شد. بیشترین میزان شاخص شانون-وینر و شاخص سیمپسون به تیمارهای ماشک گل­خوشه­ای، خللر و ماشک لامعی مربوط بود. گیاهان پوششی چاودار، ماشک لامعی و اولین زمان نمونه­برداری (حضور سبز گیاهان پوششی) مناسب­ترین گونه گیاهان پوششی و زمان­های نمونه­برداری به­منظور کاهش تراکم علف­های هرز بودند. از نتـایج به­دست آمده چنین استنباط می­گردد که بین زیست­توده گیـاهی (استقرار، زمستان گذرانی و رشد مجدد گیاهان پوششی) و میزان تراکم و زیست­توده خشک علف­های هرز رابطه موازی وجود دارد. به­طوری­که، با افزایش زیست­توده گیاهان پوششی، تراکم و زیست­توده علف­های هرز کاهش یافتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating of the Ability of some Cover Crops to Weeds Control

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leyli Nabati Souha 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim 2
  • Fatemeh Ahmadnia 3
  • Majid Rostami Yangjeh 4
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 M.Sc. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of some cover crops incontroling weed, two experiments were conducted during the fall of 2018 at Namin in Ardabil province both with three replications.The first experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design using four speacies of winter cover crops consisting of Rye (Secale cereal L.), Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), Chickling pea (Lathyrus sativa L.) and Hungarian vetch (Vicia panonica L.). The second experiment was conducted in a factorial design, based on randomized complete blocks with two sampling times: (before the end of cover crops growth (when the cover crops were green) and 40 days after the end of cover crops growth (when the cover crops were not green). The results showed that the highest total weed density was related to Hairy vetch and Chickling pea treatments (30.5 and 27 plant per square meter, respectively) and lowest weed density to Rye and Hungarian vetch treatments (17.5 and 22 plant per square meter) respectively. The results also showed that the highest total weed density was recooded from the second sampling time (30.33 plant per square meter) and the lowest total weed density (18.16 plant per square meter) was obtained from the first time of sampling. The highest levels of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices were related to the clusters of Hairy vetch, Chickling pea and Hungarian vetch.  Rye and Hungarian vetch cover crops, and the first sampling time (presence of green cover crops) were the most suitable types of cover crops and sampling times to reduce weed density. It can be inferred that there is a parallel relationship between plant biomass (establishment, overwintering and regrowth of cover crops) and weed density and dry biomass. Thus, with increasing biomass of cover crops, the density and biomass of weeds would decrease.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Density
  • Leguminous
  • Residues
  • Sampling time
  • Weed control
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