ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ های گندم نان پاییزه

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه به نژادی و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

تنش خشکی عامل اصلی کاهش عملکرد گیاهان در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک می­ باشد. در این مطالعه، گروه­ بندی تحمل به خشکی 19 ژنوتیپ گندم متعلق به سه گروه حساس، بینابین و متحمل تحت سه شرایط آبیاری (عادی، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید) با استفاده از برخی صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیکی مرتبط با تحمل به خشکی، از طریق تجزیه ­ی خوشه­ ای به روش UPGMA مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل با طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار پیاده شد و صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن تر بوته، طول سنبله اصلی، طول ریشک، وزن خشک بوته، عملکرد دانه و محتوی نسبی آب برگ ژنوتیپ­ ها اندازه ­گیری شدند. تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که تنش خشکی اثر معنی ­داری بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه، به ­جز طول ریشک، داشت. تنش خشکی موجب کاهش در اکثر صفات مورد اندازه­ گیری گردید و بیشترین کاهش در عملکرد دانه دیده شد. تجزیه ­ی خوشه­ ای ژنوتیپ ­های مورد مطالعه را در هر دو شرایط تنش، در سه گروه قرار داد. به ­طوری­ که ژنوتیپ ­های 15، 13، 12، 16 و 17 در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی در اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه میانگین کمتری را به خود اختصاص دادند. نتایج گروه­ بندی در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی نشان داد که خوشه ­بندی گروه دوم و سوم با نتایج برخی از تحقیقات پیشین مطابقت کامل داشته ولی در خوشه اول سه مورد عدم مطابقت با معرفی اولیه دیده شد. لذا، در شرایط تنش شدید خشکی گروه­ بندی اولیه، به ­خصوص در مورد اکثر ژنوتیپ­ های حساس و متحمل، صادق است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of someWinter Wheat Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rana Naderi Zarnaghi 1
  • Reza Fotovat 2
1 Young Researchers and Elite club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors crop production in arid and semiarid regions. In this study, drought tolerance of 19 wheat genotypes were evaluated by using UPGMA cluster analysis. To this end, the effect of drought stress on a number of related agronomic and physiological traits of wheat genotypes, belonging to three groups of sensitive, intermediate and drought tolerant, under three conditions of normal, moderate and severe drought stress were studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was performed. Traits like plant height, shoot fresh weight, spike length, awn length, shoot dry weight, seed yield and relative water content of genotypes were measured. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of drought on all traits except awn length were significant. Most of the traits were negatively affected by drought stress. Highest reduction was observed in grain yield. Cluster analysis grouped genotypes exposed to drought stresses in to three categories. Genotypes numbering 15, 13, 12, 16 and 17 expirienced low means in all of traits under study. The results also showed that the second and third groups, resulting from cluster analysis, were in agreement with the results of previous researches reported. The first cluster, however, was found to be inconsistent with their initial introduction grouping under severe drought stress conditions. Therefore, the initial grouping was consistent especially in most of sensitive and tolerant genotypes under severe drought stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic traits
  • Cluster analysis grouping
  • Discriminate functions
  • Drought stress
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