تأثیر محلول‌پاشی سیتوکینین بر صفات مورفولوژیکی و عملکرد ارقام کینوا (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

3 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، کرج، ایران.

10.30495/jcep.2021.679976

چکیده

خشکی به­عنوان مهم­ترین تنش غیرزنده می­تواند رشد و نمو و عملکرد گیاهان را کاهش دهد. کینوا گیاهی با ارزش غذایی بالا و متحمل به خشکی است. به­منظور بررسی اثر محلول­پاشی سیتوکینین بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و عملکرد ارقام کینوا، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1396 به­صورت طرح اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو سطح آبیاری (آبیاری مطلوب (4/0- مگاپاسکال) و تنش خشکی (5/1- مگاپاسکال)) به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و فاکتورهای فرعی شامل چهار رقم کینوا (Q 26، Q 29، Giza 1 و Red Carina) و محلول­پاشی با هورمون سیتوکینین در سه سطح (صفر، 50 و 100 میکرومولار) بودند. تیمار آبیاری و رقم در این بررسی بر تمام صفات مورد ارزیابی اثر معنی­داری داشتند. محلول­پاشی با سیتوکینین بر تمام صفات مورد ارزیابی، به­غیر از طول خوشه اصلی و شاخص سبزینگی، اثر معنی­داری داشت. بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه با 7/2364 و 8/1701 کیلوگرم در هکتار، به­ترتیب در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی به­دست آمدند. تنش خشکی سبب کاهش 28 درصدی عملکرد دانه گردید. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در رقم Giza 1 (6/2746 کیلوگرم در هکتار) وRed Carina (7/2589 کیلوگرم در هکتار) با کاربرد 100 میکرومولار سیتوکینین حاصل گردید. محلـول­پاشی سیتوکینین بر عملکرد دانه ارقام Q 26 و Q 29 اثر معنی­داری نداشت. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده می­توان رقم Giza 1 را به­عنوان رقمی مناسب جهت کشت در شرایط مطلوب و تنش خشکی مورد توجه قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effect of Cytokinin Foliar Application on Morphological Traits and Yield of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Optimal Irrigation and Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Salek Mearaji 1
  • Afshin Tavakoli 2
  • Niaz Ali Sepahvand 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Grain and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought is the most important non-biotic stress which decreases growth and the yield of crop plants. Quinoa is a plant with high nutritional value and drought tolerant. To evaluate the effect of cytokinin foliar application on morphological traits and yield of quinoa cultivars, a split factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted during during 2017 cropping season with four replications at the research farm of Agriculture Faculty, the University of Zanjan. Experimental treatments were levels of irrigation (optimal irrigation, with -0.4 MPa and drought stress with -1.5 MPa) as main factor and sub factors were four quinoa cultivars (Q 26, Q 29, Giza1 and Red Carina) and foliar cytokinin with three levels (0, 50 and 100 μM). Irrigation and cultivar treatment had significant effect on all evaluated traits. Foliar application with cytokinin had significant effect on all traits except length of main ear and greeness index (SPAD). The maximum and minimum of grain yield 2364.7 and 1701.8 kg.ha-1, obtained under optimal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. Drought stress reduced seed yield by 28 percent. The highest yields obtained by Giza 1 (2746.7 kg.ha-1) and Red Carina (2589.7 kg.ha-1) with the application 100 µm of cytokinin. The foliar application of cytokinin did not affect seed yields of Q 26 and Q 29 cultivars significantly. According to the results, Giza 1 can be recommended as a suitable cultivar under both optimum and drought stress conditions at the experimental site.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Benzylaminopurine
  • Chenopodium quinoa
  • cultivar
  • Grain yield
  • Stress
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